Machine translation obtained using Elia by Elhuyar
Yearbook 2019 | Arantza Gutierrez Paz (Emakumeen ikusgaitasuna hedabideetan Ikerketa Taldea, UPV/EHU)

“What we know about society, and even more so what we know about the world, we perceive it through the mass media,” said Niklas Luhmann (2000) in his book The Reality of the Mass Media. Because through the media we know the reality, and that"s what the media build. Walter Lippman (2003) also explains that the media are the main means of public knowledge of facts and realities that cannot otherwise be known, which can be a danger as they can offer a unique vision. Both experts say that it is not possible to obtain direct and experienced information from citizens and use second-hand sources.



For Estrella Gualda (2000: 23) "The media can raise public awareness, generate social awareness and influence education (…) can be transmitters of values, stereotypes and prejudice. They often favor sensationalism and populism." And even, “the channels of rapid dissemination of news create or break culture according to messages, can boost human rights because peace has been strengthened as instruments of citizen participation.”

Expert Mario de la Fuente García points out that the media perform a basic ideological work:

‘There are a number of ideological bases that are the main means of socialisation. Therefore, if the media presents immigration as a problem, citizens perceive it as such. (…) The work of the journalistic discourse is twofold: on the one hand, it builds the social representation of immigrants, representing them as a problematic group, and on the other, it creates the image of Chomsky and Herman (1988) as a social consensus and of “our society” tolerant, where racism is an incidental and isolated attitude” (Fuente de la García: 1051).

The Col.legi de Periodistes de Catalunya (2010) also states in its guide that “the role of the media and professionals is to know how to inform about the new context of people and their process, and the only way to do so is through quality journalism, which must understand cultural diversity as a wealth”. In this way, they say, “reinforce the discriminatory thoughts and attitudes towards people who mention themselves with negative topics and hinder knowledge among people”.

The International Federation of Journalists (IFJ) states that journalists should be made aware that journalism does not take into account cultural diversity, beliefs, etc. promotes racist attitudes and stereotypes that reinforce extreme policies. They should also know the impact of their words and images on entrenched fears or social exclusion 1.

But Manuel Lario Bastida (2006: 15) states that "the media and journalists themselves often argue that recommendations to improve information on minorities clash with the logic of what the news is." This logic is regulated by "immediacy, dramatization or vistosity, and ethnocentrism of information and analysis".

For its part, Manuel Campo Vidal (2019) states that public opinion considers that in the Spanish state there are more migrants than they actually exist; that most of the news that are published are negative; that media treatment changes when there is left or right in the government, and that in the media ideology influences treatment.

Theoretical framework

Studies on migration discourse

The treatment of migration in the media has been the object of study in the Spanish State during the last decades, because although it always existed, the XXI. Parallel to the 20th century, in the late 90s and early 2000s, the flow of people trying to reach Europe from the countries of the South was reinforced. The media played an important role in what happened in the Ejido of Almería in 2000, promoting Islamophobia and/or the hate speech that has spread so many times. Speeches that combine IGR and fraud, or the existence of unaccompanied minors and crime, have been the subject of widespread generalisation, inter alia, depending on the actions of certain media.

The literature on the subject is also extensive in the Spanish State. in the past year Teun A. Van Dijk, Racism and critical media analysis. Vallés, M. The authors Angeles Cea and Antonio Izquierdo also collected in the book The Surveys on Immigration in Spain and Europe the speeches provoked by the media in public opinion, according to the content they offer. in 2002, Enrique Santamaría suggests the unknown of the stranger. He published the book An approach to the sociological significance of ‘non-Community immigration’. In 2006, Manuel Lario Bastida coordinated the book entitled Means of Communication and Immigration, which contains texts from thirteen authors, including Teun A, who have extensive bibliography in research and theorization on migration. Van Dijk, Antonio M. Bathing or Peio M. Airbere, among others. For his part, Javier Alvarez Gálvez spoke in 2010 about the role of the media in the construction of the image of migrants about themselves.

As for research, Xavier Giró (2006) studied the editorials of El Periódico, La Vanguardia, El País and Avui in the period from October 1,999 to June 2002, in order to investigate the image transmitted by these journals on migrants.

Experts from José Alberto García Avilés and Irene Bernal Carcel (2006) analyzed the image of immigration from television news. The research of José Miguel Labrin Elgueta (2009) is developed from an intercultural perspective. Rafael Xambó (2010) analyzed the main discourses on immigration.

In 2016, the Acosta network published a report on the media and immigration, which analyzed 800 news items appearing in 32 media to learn the image they reflected around immigration and the protection and treatment of information. This information determined the primacy of the negative image.

In 2011, Alberto Durana Aostri focused more on journalists than on the treatment of immigration, in his doctoral thesis The profile of the Basque journalist and his training in the social sphere of immigration. Meanwhile, Estibaliz García Chacón (2017) analyzed in his Final Degree Work the image of the newspaper El Correo on migrants. Mariona Codinach Fide (2015) studied the fulfilment of the criteria established by the deontological codes in the information regarding Moroccan migrants on local Catalan television in Salt, and published a series of recommendations to adequately treat immigration from this study.

At the UAB, Migracom3 observatory led by Nicolás Lorite García, a series of studies are gathered that analyze how the media reflect immigration. Vision 4 Basque Observatory of Immigration at the UPV/EHU offers mainly sociological analysis and barometer on the perception of Basque citizenship in relation to migrants.

Guidelines for appropriate migration treatment

In addition to research, organizations and associations working in the field of interculturality and migration have included in various texts recommendations on the treatment of migration in the media, social networks and oral communication. From the extreme ideologies of the right, especially, but also from other areas of our society, they seek to combat rumours, stereotypes, lies and negative visions, xenophobic and odious discourses of migrants who are spread, valuing the positive aspects generated by cultural diversity and migration. This section includes some of these guidelines.

In 2006 the Audiovisual Council of Andalusia published recommendations to be taken into account when talking about immigration. In addition to rejecting one-dimensional treatment that has an impact on negative aspects, taking into account the rights to protect the image of all citizens, it also highlights the need to expose not only the problems faced by immigrants, but also the benefits they bring to society, in a series of recommendations addressed to both audiovisual and professional operators.

The Spanish Observatory against Xenophobia and Racism published the Practical Guide for Communication Professionals: Media Treatment of Immigration (Sendin Gutierrez and Izquierdo Iranzo, 2008).

Practical guide for journalists 2010 from the Roma Secretariat Foundation. It published Equal treatment, the media and the Roma community, with the aim of offering tools to combat the exclusion of Roma people, many of them applicable to negative discourses on immigrants.

In the first edition of 2011 and in the second edition of 2016, the City of Barcelona published a guide to combat stereotypes and rumors about immigration, within the strategy Zurrumurrurik EZ (D-CAS, 2016).

In 2013, Consell del Audiovisual de Catalunya - Guia de llenguatge inclusive. He published Immigrant, racisme i xenofòbia (Tortaja eta Muixí, 2013).

In 2014, the MDA (Mesa per la Diversitat de l’Audiovisual) published a guide for audiovisual professionals: Eines per la diversitat: “Per als profesfionals of audiovisual communication”.

In our case, the Harresia Apurtuz group published Immigration and Media in 2007. Manual of good journalistic practices based on the Journalistic Style Book of the Catalan College of Journalists.

In 2015, CEAR Euskadi Journalists against xenophobia. He published a guide entitled Guide to Don"t Let You Get Infected (Argote, 2015). In 2019, the organization for refugees Citizenship of the same author against xenophobic political speeches. He published a fire guide.

Web tools to combat lies on migration

Besides the aforementioned guides, we have the https://immigration campaigns project. They denounce the sensationalism of news about immigration, denouncing false information about migration through the web and social networks in the Spanish media, as well as those published for sensational purposes and news that reinforce the most negative stereotypes. This is a collaborative project in which citizens also invite us to receive and report this news. That is why the bitcollection is classified into three major thematic areas: criminalization, stereotypes and alarmism.

In 2014, Mugak eta SOS Racism Tools for proper treatment of immigration. Didactic guide and proposal of web space directed and coordinated by the Diversity Observatory in the media: http://propaganda

But in addition to the media discourse on migrants and immigration, the Internet and social networks have a great responsibility, the Proxi project, based on the comments (on digital media) of the news from El País, El Mundo and 20 Minutos, analyzed in 2015 how the reddish Internet discourse is constructed and how it is faced. In addition to publicizing the results of this research, they have aimed to combat hate speeches that are spreading on the Internet and social networks at, created for this purpose since its creation. Anyone can also participate here and denounce speeches that spread against foreign people.

Fáes news or fake news, with widespread social media presence, often have migrant people as protagonists. To counter these lies were born the projects ‘Maldives Bule’ and ‘Maldives immigration’, which chose the Internet as a means of diffusion: https://maldives/maldives/maldives/. They are also cooperative work platforms that invite citizens to report news and content that extol the negative view of immigrants, especially when they offer distorted or false realities directly.

Media migration and multiculturalism

The objective of this study is to analyze how the local Basque press reflects the reality of people of foreign origin, migrants and refugees, as well as migration and multiculturalism. To do so, we have classified the main speeches the media offers on these topics.

Antirumors in Barcelona (D-CAS, 2016: 19-20) distinguish three major conceptions of multiculturalism in the area of dependence:

(a) Ethnocentric: we use our cultural values to judge people from different contexts.

(b) Universalist: our culture and its manifestations are the best, not only for us but for other cultures.

(c) Mission: our culture is not only the best for us and others, but we have a mission that is to “teach the right way” to others, that is, we must “help” the other cultures because our values are the best.

In short, some experts consider that four are the main discourses on immigration: (1) ethnocentrism or europarcentrism, (2) racism, (3) xenophobia and (4) goodness or goodness. These speeches can be evident, for example, in campaigns that link the IGR with fraud; subtle or shields when immigration appears as a problem or associated with negative values (perpetrators of crimes, victims of trafficking); or when, simply, invisible, they do not appear in the media. That is, not showing migrants, not using them as a source or as protagonists of news —especially positive—. This allows reinforcing previous speeches.

Antonio Bañón Hernández (2006: 29) distinguishes seven types of discourse in relation to the membership or not of the group that is valued: committed, vindictive, exclusive, self-examiner, amoral, desperate, preventative or segregating. He says that the media are the main transmitters of such debates and regulate their fluctuations and intensity.

Mario de la Fuente García, in his doctoral thesis Argumentation in the journalistic discourse on immigration, explains that "the media discourse on immigrants is built fundamentally from the concept of otherness. The others are different, have traditions and visions of life far from ours” (De la Fuente García, 2011: 161). But he believes that this would have no problem if it were often not collected negatively.

Regarding multiculturality, this same author points out that the differences or multiculturality existing within the group are considered positive, but as for other sociocultural groups these differences are incompatible with their own. In addition, this other, the immigrant, is considered a homogeneous group (De la Fuente García, 2011: 169).

Consequently, according to De la Fuente, there are two main types of discourse around immigration: the homogenization of exote members and the application of the positive or negative connotations of the concepts of diversity, multiculturalism or interculturality (De la Fuente García, 2011: 171).

Migration and multiculturalism in Southern Euskal Herria

According to the Basque immigration observatory Begira, 221,992 people of foreign origin lived in the CAPV in 2019, 10.05% of the population. In Hego Euskal Herria there were 286,049 people born outside our borders (10%), of whom 64,057 were residents of Navarra. By country, the exact distribution would be as follows:




In fact, according to the 2019 barometer of the Basque Immigration Observatory Begira, less than half of the Basque population considers that the foreign population living in the Basque Country is excessive or sufficient (48.4%). This perception has seen a slight increase in the last year (+1.9 points) and 21.1% of the population believe that there is too much immigration in the Basque Country. However, asked about this concern, the population ranks seventh among the main problems detected by migration, behind unemployment, pensions or housing (Begira, 2019: 8).

However, despite the fact that the migratory flow in Hego Euskal Herria, in general, and in the CAPV in particular, is lower than in other areas of the Spanish State, the social agents and institutions foreshadowed the need to face the xenophobic and racist discourses and rumors that were expanding in society. Therefore, in 2011, the project called Zurrumurrurik EZ5 from different institutions was launched until reaching the methodology of the Barcelona Antirumors project. The latter provides citizens with training to combat false stereotypes, beliefs and news about migrants, so that they become active agents against xenophobic messages.



In this research work we have analyzed how migrations, foreign people and intercultural or cultural diversities are collected in the Basque local press. To this end, ten magazines (paper copies) have been received from the local Basque press of Hego Euskal Herria, maintaining the territorial balance: Araba Aiaraldea; Guaixe and Ttipi-ttapa de Navarra; Bizkaia Anboto, Hiruka, Geuria and Begitu; and Gipuzkoa Goiena, Eta Kitto! and Noau.

As for the trial period, 11 copies published between January and December 2019 have been considered. In the case of the semanaries (Goiena, Eta Kitto! Naoua, Guaixe, Anboto and Hiruka), each month they have taken numbers of different weeks. In the case of the fortnightly (Aiaraldea, Begitu and Ttipi-ttapa), there have been alternations of five hundred. The only monthly magazine has been rain, and in this case all the copies have been analyzed.

Altogether, 186 contents related to the topic under study were analyzed: photographs, news, interviews or articles of other form of information or information. We have taken into account not only the content dealing with issues such as migration, protection, xenophobia, racism or multiculturalism, but also information, photographs, opinions, etc. they deal with something else, provided that they include content related to the object of study (for example, a news about the school and the photo reflects the diversity of cultural or superficial colors). In some cases, however, some people rationalized or with foreign surnames have not been able to be classified as “migrants” or “foreign” because they do not have other data.

For each of the contents analyzed, a form was elaborated that took into account the headings of protagonists, foreign origin or racialized person of the content, gender, theme and vision provided. Content was initially classified as ‘positive/negative/neutral’, although such classification was not sufficient, other values such as solidarity, cooperation, denunciation or assistentialism had to be included in the codification.



Low migratory presence

In 74 of the 110 journals analyzed, that is, in 2/3, content related to multiculturalism or migration or starring foreign or migrant people have been found: a total of 186 news, photographs, opinions or other information. Only in Goiena have we found in all the numbers some content related to the topic under study, while in Begitu we have only found migrants as protagonists of the information in a number.



Among the opinions, in eight of the articles the authors talked about migration or multiculturality, and half of them were published in Goiena.

As for the protagonists of these contents, 96 cases have led migrants or racialized people 7 protagonists, representing 51.6%. If we look at its origin, we know the birthplace of 56 people of foreign origin, with a larger number of Basque people from Latin America (21), followed by Maghreb (17), European (12) and sub-Saharan (6). We also have two protagonists coming from Asia, the Ahsem Lamamusa (Eta Kitto!) They came from Pakistan to Eibar. In number 1122 of the magazine) and the family Moussaoui (Anboto in number 785) who came to Amorebieta seeking refuge from Syria. Lastly, Tim Johnson, from the United States, explains his experience at the Hospitado de Amorebieta, magazine Anboto 8, in his report “In the Hospitado de Amorebieta there are 101 people studying and practicing Euskera”.

In the analyzed journals, however, no articles, information or opinions signed by migrated people were found.


No negative vision

Only two of the 186 contents analyzed in this study can affirm that migration was associated with a news item or topic of negative connotation. Eta Kitto, 16 April 2019. The magazine publishes the news entitled ‘Demonstration against all kinds of terrorism’, in which Muslim people speak out against the attack suffered in New Zealand, as seen in the photo. On the other hand, on 29 March in the weekly Goiena, Romanian feminist activist Amelia Tiganus speaks about prostitution and treatment in the interview entitled “You are an object of abuse in the brothels”. In neither case, however, is it from a negative perspective. In the first news, 51 people died in New Zealand in attacks by a white supremacist against two mosques, but the headline mentions ‘all kinds of terrorism’, as it is often associated with Islam, especially after the Paris attacks of 2015 and Nice of 2016. On the other hand, prostitution and human trafficking are often associated with migration, while in Goiena Amelia Tiganus, rather than being the victim, appears as a living activist who is not only the protagonist of dialogue, but also of his own life.

In addition, a single crime has been detected in the investigated journals, but neither the origin or nationality of the criminal is mentioned in this case. This has a double reading, or is local, and in this case it is not usually given or, being of foreign origin, it does not appear applying good journalistic practices. However, no data are available to confirm any of them.

In addition, migration is considered a problem in three informations such as the 144 Triennium, news about the school integration of foreign children.

Predominance of solidarity messages

As noted, in almost all the analyzed contents, migration or the vision of multiculturality has been positive. But the vision of solidarity certainly prevails over others. In fact, 28% of the contents analyzed explain from solidarity the treatment of migration or multiculturalism issues. It should also be noted that in the Sahrawi camps and in the refugee camps we find a great deal of information (11%) about the collection of clothing or other products for residents in Greece (11%), which addresses the issue from a care perspective. 12% of the contents also refer to Basques and/or cooperative or cooperative projects at local level (22). The reception of migrants is also discussed in nine information or images (5%).




Awareness campaigns to combat prejudices and stereotypes towards migrants (Zurrumurrurik EZ project) focus on five stories. Three of them in Geuria and one in Guaixe and Ternaria. In this sense, within the NO Zurrumurrurik strategy, specific training has been offered to journalists from Topagune journals to deal with the false news and prejudices that spread with migrants.

19 information or opinions (10%) dominate the political perspective. In addition to solidarity with refugees, the reasons why people are forced to flee their villages are often explained. The photographic report of issue 144 of the February Triennial highlights: It is the caravan Mugak Zabalduz, held in the summer of 1990, in which a journalist from the magazine Uribe Kosta participated. There are also situations such as Bolivia or the Sahara, or the massacres in Tarajal, to name but a few.



Reflection of diversity

We also find in the media a reflection of the diversity and changes that are taking place in Basque society, although the presence of migrants or racialized people in the information is still scarce (as mentioned, none among writers or signatories). In 63 contents, local journals show multiculturalism and interculturality. And Kitto from Eibar! In the magazine, for example, we have the section "Ei• Pmak", in which people of foreign origin living in Eibar expose their experiences and their relationship with Eibar and Euskal Herria. Reflection of this normalized image are also the testimonies that appear around any topic, such as the street surveys conducted in Geuria around the elections or in Villancico or around the recently inaugurated Theater in Villancico.

For example, in the magazine Anboto (No. 774) of 6 September, in the report “All Ways of Understanding Beauty Have Room in Durango Fashion Gaua”, the experience of two young Senegalese people is gathered.




However, it should be said that in the section of past times dedicated to children, which is shared in several journals, this social diversity is not reflected, nor have people been found racialized in them.

The influence appears in 4% of the contents analyzed as a characteristic of normalization or coexistence. For example, three reports on Korrika give voice to people born outside the border. Issue 771 of Anboto Magazine includes the testimonies of the American Tim Johnson and the German Cosima Franke who are studying in the report on Amorebieta Boarding. In addition, Euskera is also present in interviews with neighbors and neighbors of foreign origin in different journals.

Four stories about feminism (2%) show diverse women, not only with words, but also with images.

Only six of the contents (3%) were interviewed as an expert to a person of foreign origin: Mexican Norma Vázquez in the interviews held in Anboto and Goiena; Romanian Amelia Tiganus, British Carlos Rey -Surman, Iranian filmmaker Arghar Farhadi and musician Hakim Flissi. Three sports news starring migrants. In one case he is an elite sportsman, a player who plays in Real Madrid called Vinicius, while in the other two they are Maghreb athletes who have won different races.



From the analysis of the contents of the local journals (information, opinions and images) it can be concluded that good practices prevail when reflecting migration or multiculturalism, although there are some aspects to improve. The following lines explain:

a) What can be deduced from good practice:

  • We have not found xenophobic or racist discourses in the analyzed journals. Nor are migrants related to opinions, visions or facts that have some negative value.
  • Information and images on non-migration issues include the presence of migrants and racism as a sign of normalization (i.e. at the same level as the rest of the population). Migrants appear in the content related to the elections, the fashion show, the Basque studies, etc., and not only in the news or articles that refer directly to them. Also, as the media in Euskera, the effort made by foreign people in the study of Euskera on several occasions is highlighted, as a positive sign of these.
  • Solidarity, coexistence and multiculturalism are frequent positive values. Information about cooperation with poorer countries and solidarity with migrants or refugees is also important, often highlighting the ‘good’ or ‘Buddhist’ discourse. In addition, although at a lower level, it also explains the political denunciation and causes of the situation of people and peoples.
  • Awareness of stereotyped discourse towards migrants and refugees has a place in information. They account for the anti-rumors strategy. It is worth noting the training received by several journals of Topagune to cover false perceptions, false news and value the richness of multiculturalism around migrants. b) Among the actions to be improved:
  • The presence of migrants is still low in the Basque press. Almost anecdotal in some journals. Although the non-sharing of the language - the number of Vasco-speakers is lower among foreigners than among residents - may be distancing, prejudice and lack of mutual knowledge follow. Therefore, these media can become an instrument of rapprochement with the community and the Basque country. Indeed, the local press, as the closest means of communication to the local community, can be a good instrument for promoting cooperation.
  • It would be good, as far as possible, to involve migrants in sources of information, experts, collaborators and drafts. This would help to have a voice of its own.
  • Migrants and foreigners continue to appear often as "others". The difference with the natives is obvious. There is also an amoral discourse, in which sometimes they appear as foreign people or refugees who must be accompanied. Many times the “white” voices speak of the “others”: what they have done in cooperation projects, the feelings of those who have gone to help, etc.
  • Multiculturalism and other forms of diversity should appear in images for children. All children who appear in past times are white and do not reflect an increasingly common school reality.


Álvarez Gálvez, Javier (2010): «Immigration and media images: qualitative analysis of the self-perception of immigrants», Social Media. Revista de Ciencias Sociales y de la Comunicación (6), p. 93-119, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, <> <> <> <>.

Argote, Rosabel (2015): Journalists against xenophobia. CEAR-Euskadi, Bilbao.

Argote, Rosabel (2019): Citizens against xenophobic political speeches. CEAR-Euskadi Fire Guide, Bilbao.

Bañón Hernández, Antonio M. (2006): ‘Migradoen arteko komunikazio baliabideak aztertu spacewithin. A personal view», Martínez Lirola, María (Ed. ), Immigration, discourse and media, Alicante, Instituto Alicantino de Cultura Juan Gil-Albert.

Campo Vidal, Manuel (2019): «Treatment in Means of Immigration», DSN, Specialized Committee on Immigration Migratory Phenomenon in Spain, Reflections from the field of National Security, p. 17-26.

Col.legi de Periodistes de Catalunya (2010): It was berean, komunikazio mitjans batean kultur diversitat tratamentaz.

Audiovisual Council of Andalusia (2006): Recommendations of the Audiovisual Council of Andalusia on the treatment of immigration in audiovisual media, _2006_02_Treatment%20inmigracion.pdf

D-CAS (Col ▪ lectiu d’Analistes Socials) (2016): GUIDE PRÀCTICA PER A L’AGENT ANTIRUMORS Com combats the rumors and stereotips about cultural diversitat to Barcelona, Barcelona: Àrea de Drets de la Ciutadania, Participació i Transparència Ajuntament de Barcelona.

De la Fuente García, Mario A. (2011): The argumentation in the journalistic discourse on immigration, Doctoral thesis. Leo: University of Leon.

De la Fuente García, Mario A. (2004): ‘Critical analysis of discourse and racism in the media’, Minutes of the V General Linguistics Congress 2002, p. 1047-1057. Madrid, Arco Libros.

Durana Aostri, A. (2011): Kazetarian Euskal eta bere prestakuntza gizarte-eremuan.

Fosas Codinach, M. (2015): The informative treatment of Moroccan immigration on television: the case of Salt, Barcelona: UAB.

Fundación Secretarial Gitano (2010): Practical guide for journalists. Equal treatment, media and the Roma community, Madrid, 2010.

García Aviles, J. A. and Bernal Carcel, I. (2006): ‘The treatment of immigration in television news’, Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Justicia of the University of Elche, p. 80-91.

García Chacón, Alentbaliz (2017): How do the media show us migrants? : Analysis of the newspaper El Correo, Trabajo Fin de Grado, Leioa.

He turned, X. (2006): ‘Written press and immigration’, Zer:Journal of communication studies, 20, p. 253-270.

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Gutierrez Paz, Arantza (2017): How do we face hate speech from the media and social media? Alternative Communication Week, Revista Pueblos, < <> < <> -rumerrez-mecan-type>

Gutierrez Paz, Arantza (2017 b): They and us. The media builds inclusive communication to address the other"s idea, Zenaudi.

Gutierrez Paz, Arantza (2017 c): Media and hate crimes, Errenteria.

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Begira (2019): Barometer: Perceptions and attitudes towards the population of foreign origin <> <https://www.visión> <> <>

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Muga/SOS Racism (2014): - Didactic guide and proposal of web space directed and coordinated by the Diversity Observatory in the media, <http://xliff-newline <> <http://xliff-newline <>>.

Proxi. (2015): Online project against xenophobia and intolerance, Barcelona.

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Barcelona Antirumors Project: .cat/bcnacciointercultural/ca/strategy -bcn-antirumors/que-fem-estrateg-antirumors

Begira, Basque Immigration Observatory: eus

Immigration: www.immigration. org/en/

Damn immigration: https://maldives/damn/

Maldives: https://maldives.

PROXI, counterclockwork:

Red Acoes (Andalusia, Ceuta and Melilla) -rumors/

Anti-rumors Network Andalusia: http://www.redantirumors

SGR - MIGRACOM - Observatory and Research Group on Migration and Communication:

Zaragoza Antirumors: https://www.zaragoza .es/sede/portal/nutri-sociales/cas-cultures/antirumors/

Anti-rumors network

1.- Recommendations of the International Federation of Journalists (IFJ) on the report of the European Media Observatory Day by OL/MCM on the website -de-media/implanted -practice.

2.- The author of this article has highlighted the xenophobic vision behind some news published by various media from examples compiled for different formations and has disseminated other works (see 2017 a, 2017 b and 2017 c).

3.- Migracom observatory website:

4.- Website of the Basque Immigration Observatory Begira:

5.- Project website NO rumor:

6.- Reference to Antirumors methodology: https://ajuntament₡.barcelona .cat/bcnacciointercultural/ca/estrateg-bcn-antirumors/que-fem-estrateg-antirumors

7.- The surface color of people is a visible expression of multiculturalism. It has been taken into account when people are racialized in the photographs, even if it is not possible to know whether or not they have a foreign origin.

8.- In No. 771 of the weekly Anboto, in No. 12 of July 2019.

9.- We perceive that they are Muslims because women carry the handkerchief of the hijab.